Wild oat is a herbicide resistance-prone global weed species that causes significant economic losses in dryland and horticultural agriculture. As a result, there has been a significant research effort in controlling this species.
Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) is a species that is prone to evolve resistance to a wide range of herbicide modes of action. Rapid detection of herbicide-resistant weed populations in the field can aid farmers to optimize the use of effective herbicides for their control.
The herbicide pyroxasulfone was widely introduced in 2012, and cases of evolved resistance in weeds such as annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) and tall waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] have started to emerge.
For the first time, resistance levels to stand-alone herbicides and binary mixtures are geographically ranked across the Australian continent by benchmark statistical analysis of resistance frequencies and distribution. The extension of these results will raise awareness of rapidly emerging patterns of herbicide resistance, encouraging the adoption of cost-effective modes of action and integration of diverse strategies for weed resistance management.
Recommended herbicide resistance management strategies and tactics have evolved over the past 50 years through cumulative research and experience, and have been regularly reviewed. Nevertheless, new perspectives may be gained by viewing current recommended strategies through the lens of insecticide, fungicide, and antibiotic resistance management.
What commonalities exist and what is the basis for disparate strategies? Find out by reading the paper in full.
In this study, researchers showed a synergistic effect of the auxin herbicide 2,4-D amine with the PSII-inhibiting herbicide metribuzin to control the global grass weed wild oat (Avena sterilis) population and investigated the underlying mechanisms.
AHRI researchers have show in this report that a single P450 gene in a cross-pollinated weed species L. rigidum confers resistance to herbicides of at least five modes of action across seven herbicide chemistries.
Weed risk assessment systems are used to estimate the potential weediness or invasiveness of introduced species in non-agricultural habitats. However, an equivalent system has not been developed for weed species that occur in agronomic cropland. Therefore, the Agricultural Weed Assessment Calculator (AWAC) was developed to quantify the present and potential future adverse impact of a weed species on crop production and profitability (threat analysis), thereby informing or directing research, development, and extension (RDE) investments or activities.
This study provides examples showing that target-site resistance to POST herbicides and non-target-site resistance to PRE herbicides can be overcome by offering direct evidence across many L. rigidum populations screened. Evolved resistance to binary herbicide mixtures in individual plants may require the accumulation of multiple traits (at least two genetic traits) conferring resistance to each herbicide component applied at the maximum recommended dosage.
Glyphosate is often tank-mixed with auxinic herbicide 2,4-D for grass and broadleaf weed control. In this paper, the authors examined the possible interaction of 2,4-D and glyphosate in barnyard grass, Echinochloa colona. The results showed that 2,4-D antagonizes glyphosate remarkably in glyphosate resistant populations but only marginally in susceptible populations. This antagonism is related to reduced glyphosate uptake and (to a lesser extent) translocation. As 2,4-D has multiple, unpredictable effects on other herbicides, care must be taken when tank-mixing herbicides with 2,4-D.