wild radish

Identification of field resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum)

Dr Roberto Busi

We report here the first case of field resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in R. raphanistrum (wild radish), caused by 12 years of continuous reliance on that mode of action.

The adaptive value of flowering time in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum)

This paper demonstrates that an early flowering time adaptation does not come at a growth cost when in competition with wheat. Flowering time however did result in an increasing number of flowers being located below the harvest cutting height. As the early flowering wild radish does not come at a competitive cost, it needs to be managed through diversity in both management tactic and timing.

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Plasma membrane receptor-like kinases and transporters are associated with 2,4-D resistance in wild radish

Resistance to the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) appears to be due to a complex, multifaceted mechanism possibly involving enhanced constitutive plant defence and alterations in auxin signalling. Based on a previous gene expression analysis highlighting the plasma membrane as being important for 2,4-D resistance, this study aimed to identify the components of the leaf plasma membrane proteome that contribute to resistance. Key results included: two receptor-like kinases of unknown function (L-type lectin domain-containing receptor kinase IV.1-like and At1g51820-like) and the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB19, an auxin efflux transporter, were identified as being associated with auxinic herbicide resistance.

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Evolution of resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in a wild radish population via enhanced herbicide metabolism

Herbicides that inhibit HPPD have become very important. In North America, corn-selective HPPD herbicides have long been used and cases of HPPD herbicide-resistant weeds reported. 

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Non-target site resistance to PDS-inhibiting herbicides in a wild radish Raphanus raphanistrum population

The paper “Non-target site resistance to PDS-inhibiting herbicides in a wild radish Raphanus raphanistrum population” is the work of AHRI PhD student Huan Lu.

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Metribuzin Resistance in a Wild Radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) Population via Both psbA Gene Mutation and Enhanced Metabolism

This paper identifies multiple mechanisms: as well as psbA gene mutation there is a non-target site resistance mechanism of enhanced metabolism. Of course, we expect multiple mechanisms of herbicide resistance as evident here in both target site psbA gene mutation and non-target site enhanced metabolism resistance.

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A novel psbA mutation (Phe274–Val) confers resistance to PSII herbicides in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum)

Yellow radish flower

Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) is a globally important weed of crops. Two atrazine-resistant wild radish populations (R1 and R2), collected from the Western Australia grain belt, were investigated for resistance to photosystem II (PSII) herbicides.

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2,4-D and dicamba resistance mechanisms in wild radish: subtle, complex and population specific?

An overall finding of this study of auxinic herbicide resistance, at least in Raphanus R populations, is that conclusions on mechanisms cannot be made from studying just a few R populations. There are very clear differences between and within resistant populations. This research is ongoing in an attempt to reveal the important mechanisms that can endow resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba in plants.

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2,4-D and dicamba resistance mechanisms in wild radish: subtle, complex and population specific?

Danica Goggin

In an Australian Research Council funded Linkage project with Nufarm as the industry partner, AHRI researcher Danica Goggin combined a transcriptomic and biochemical approach to investigate the diversity of 2,4-D resistance mechanisms in 11 resistant populations of wild radish. All of these wild radish populations had a relatively high level of resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba, although there were differences between populations in the level of resistance.

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Inheritance of 2,4-D resistance traits in multiple herbicide-resistant Raphanus raphanistrum populations

Wild radish in flower

Arelatively low number of weed species have evolved resistance to auxinic herbicides despite their use for almost 70 years. This inheritance study with two Raphanus raphanistrum populations multiple-resistant 2,4-D and the ALS-inhibiting herbicide chlorsulfuron determined the number of genes and genetic dominance of 2,4-D resistance and investigated the association between traits conferring resistance to the two herbicide modes of action. Levels of 2,4-D phenotypic resistance and resistance segregation patterns were assessed in parental populations, F1 and F2 families.

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