2011

The potential for pyroxasulfone to selectivity to control resistant and suceptible rigid rygrass (Lolium rigidum) biotypes in australian grain crop production systems

The widespread evolution of resistance in rigid ryegrass populations to the highly effective, in-crop, selective herbicides used within southern Australian grain-crop production systems has severely diminished the available herbicide resource.

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Glyphosate resistance in perennial Sorghum halapense (Johnsongrass), endowed by reduced glyphosate translocation and leaf uptake

Dr Martin Vila-Aiub

In a large cropping area of northern Argentina, Sorghum halepense (Johnsongrass) has evolved towards glyphosate resistance. This study aimed to determine the molecular and biochemical basis conferring glyphosate resistance in this species. Experiments were conducted to assess target EPSPS gene sequences and 14C-glyphosate leaf absorption and translocation to meristematic tissues.

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Does cutting herbicide rates threaten the sustainability of weed management in cropping systems

Stephen Powels

Evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is a growing problem across the world, and it has been suggested that low herbicide rates may be contributing to this problem.

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Towards large-scale prediction of lolium rigidum I. Can climate be used to predict dormancy parameters?

Lolium rigidum (annual or rigid ryegrass) is a widespread annual weed in cropping systems of southern Australia. Seeds exhibit dormancy at dispersal and require a period of dry after-ripening to release dormancy, before germination and emergence can occur.

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Towards large-scale prediction of Lolium rigidum emeregence II. correlation between dormancy and herbicide resistance levels suggest an impact of cropping systems

This study investigated a possible link between seed dormancy and herbicide resistance status of Lolium rigidum (annual or rigid ryegrass). Mature seeds were collected from 406 populations across the 14-million hectare grain belt of southern Western Australia.

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Rapid Evolution of Herbicide Resistance by Low Herbicide Dosages

Roberto Busi weighs seeds in lab

Herbicide rate cutting is an example of poor use of agrochemicals that can have potential adverse implications due to rapid herbicide resistance evolution. Recent laboratory-level studies have revealed that herbicides at lower-than-recommended rates can result in rapid herbicide resistance evolution in rigid ryegrass populations.

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Gene flow increases the initial frequency of herbicide resistance alleles in unselected Lolium rigidum populations.

In two different locations of the Western Australian “wheatbelt”, Lolium rigidum (rigid ryegrass) seeds were collected from organic fields (no herbicide use) and neighbouring conventional fields (persistent herbicide use), the latter infested with herbicide-resistant plants, to investigate the occurrence of gene flow among field populations as revealed by herbicide resistance gene transfer.

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Genetic control of a cytochrome P450 metabolismbased herbicide resistance mechanism in Lolium rigidum

Roberto Busi weighs seeds in lab

The dynamics of herbicide resistance evolution in plants are influenced by many factors, especially the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance. Herbicide resistance can be endowed by enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism because of the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, although in weedy plants the genetic control of cytochrome P450-endowed herbicide resistance is poorly understood.

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Reduced Sensitivity to paraquat evolves under selection with low glyphosate doses in lolium rigidum

Roberto Busi weighs seeds in lab

This is the first report of low-dose glyphosate selection causing a shift towards paraquat resistance. Herbicide resistance in weed species is a serious threat to world agriculture. We report rapid resistance evolution in the genetically variable cross-pollinated grass weed Lolium rigidum when recurrently selected with low doses.

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