Long-term and excessive herbicide use has led to some environmental concerns and especially, herbicide resistance evolution in weeds.
In this study, researchers confirmed acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide penoxsulam resistance and cross-resistance to acetyl-coenzyme carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides (cyhalofop-butyl and metamifop) in a global weed Echinochloa crus-galli population resistant to these herbicides (R).
Penoxsulam metabolism study indicated that degradation rate was significantly higher in R than susceptible E. crus-galli population (S). RNA-sequencing revealed that a cytochrome P450 (P450) gene, CYP81A68, expressed higher in R versus S. Rice seedlings overexpressing this CYP81A68 gene are resistant to penoxsulam, cyhalofop-butyl and metamifop, and penoxsulam resistance is due to enhanced metabolism via O-demethylation. Deletion analysis of the CYP81A68 gene promoter identified an efficient region, in which differential methylation of CpG islands occurred between R and S.
Collectively, these results demonstrate that upregulation of E. crus-galli CYP81A68 gene endows generalist metabolic resistance to commonly used ALS- and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in rice fields and epigenetic regulation may play a role in the resistance evolution.
This research could contribute to strategies reducing herbicide environmental impacts by judicious selection of alternative herbicide and nonchemical control tactics.
Keywords: Cyhalofop butyl, cytochrome P450, herbicide metabolism, Metamifop, Methylation analysis, O-demethylation, Penoxsulam
Publication Year: 2022Download PDF