2021

A dinitroaniline herbicide resistance mutation can be nearly lethal to plants

Dr Yanhui Wang and Dr Heping Han

Lolium rigidum is the most important weed in Australian agriculture and the pre-emergence dinitroaniline herbicides (e.g. trifluralin) are widely and persistently used for Lolium control. Consequently, resistance evolution to dinitroaniline herbicides has been increasingly reported. Resistance-endowing target-site 𝛼-tubulin gene mutations are identified with varying frequencies. The present study investigated the putative fitness cost associated with the common resistance mutation Val-202-Phe, and the rare resistance mutation of Arg-243-Met causing helical plant growth.

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CYP81A68 confers metabolic resistance to ALS and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides and its epigenetic regulation in Echinochloa crus-galli

Dr Qin Yu and Professor Lang Pan

Long-term and excessive herbicide use has led to some environmental concerns and especially, herbicide resistance evolution in weeds. Here, researchers confirmed acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide penoxsulam resistance and cross-resistance to acetyl-coenzyme carboxylase (ACCase) inhibiting herbicides (cyhalofop-butyl and metamifop) in a global weed Echinochloa crus-galli population resistant to these herbicides (R).

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A naturally evolved mutation (Ser-59-Gly) in glutamine synthetase confers glufosinate resistance in plants

Dr Qin Yu and Dr Heping Han

Glufosinate is an important and widely used non-selective herbicide active on a wide range of plant species. Resistance evolution to glufosinate in weedy plant species (including the global weed Eleusine indica) is underway. AHRI researchers established the molecular basis of target-site glufosinate resistance in Eleusine indica.

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Mechanical scarification technique breaks seed coat-mediated dormancy in wild oat (Avena fatua)

Wild oat is a herbicide resistance-prone global weed species that causes significant economic losses in dryland and horticultural agriculture. As a result, there has been a significant research effort in controlling this species.

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Rapid On-Farm Testing of Resistance in Lolium rigidum to Key Pre- and Post-Emergence Herbicides

Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) is a species that is prone to evolve resistance to a wide range of herbicide modes of action. Rapid detection of herbicide-resistant weed populations in the field can aid farmers to optimize the use of effective herbicides for their control.

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Pyroxasulfone-Resistant Annual Ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) Has Enhanced Capacity for Glutathione Transferase-Mediated Pyroxasulfone Conjugation

The herbicide pyroxasulfone was widely introduced in 2012, and cases of evolved resistance in weeds such as annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) and tall waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer] have started to emerge.

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Herbicide resistance across the Australian continent

For the first time, resistance levels to stand-alone herbicides and binary mixtures are geographically ranked across the Australian continent by benchmark statistical analysis of resistance frequencies and distribution. The extension of these results will raise awareness of rapidly emerging patterns of herbicide resistance, encouraging the adoption of cost-effective modes of action and integration of diverse strategies for weed resistance management.

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Herbicide resistance management strategies: How do they compare with those for insecticides, fungicides and antibiotics?

Recommended herbicide resistance management strategies and tactics have evolved over the past 50 years through cumulative research and experience, and have been regularly reviewed. Nevertheless, new perspectives may be gained by viewing current recommended strategies through the lens of insecticide, fungicide, and antibiotic resistance management.

What commonalities exist and what is the basis for disparate strategies? Find out by reading the paper in full. 

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An ABCC-type transporter endowing glyphosate resistance in plants

ABC transporter genes are present in plants and now a specific ABC transporter has been shown to endow resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, in a similar way to the way these ABC transporters can give resistance to anti-cancer drugs in humans. This is the first time that a plant ABC transporter has been found responsible for herbicide resistance. 

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Assessing the Capability and Potential of LiDAR for Weed Detection

In this study, the capability of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensors were assessed to detect and locate weeds. For this purpose, two trials were performed using artificial targets (representing weeds) at different heights and diameter to understand the detection limits of a LiDAR.

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