Enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism in low herbicide-dose selected resistant lolium rigidum

Lolium rigidum is an obligately cross-pollinated, genetically diverse species and an economically important herbicide resistance-prone weed. Our previous work has demonstrated that recurrent selection of initially susceptible L. rigidum populations with low herbicide rates results in rapid herbicide resistance evolution. Here we report on the mechanisms endowing low-dose-selected diclofop-methyl resistance in L. rigidum. Results showed that resistance was not due to target-site ACCase mutations or overproduction, or differential herbicide leaf uptake and translocation. The in vivo de-esterification of diclofop-methyl into phytotoxic diclofop acid was rapid and similar in resistant versus susceptible populations. However, further metabolism of diclofop acid into non-toxic metabolites was always faster in resistant plants than susceptible plants, resulting in up to 2.6-fold lower level of diclofop acid in resistant plants. This corresponded well with up to twofold higher level of diclofop acid metabolites in resistant plants. The major polar metabolites of diclofop acid chromatographically resembled those of wheat, a naturally tolerant species. Clearly, recurrent selection at reduced herbicide rates selected for non-target-sitebased enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism, likely involving cytochrome P450 monooxygenases

Plant, Cell & Environment, online

Keywords: cut rates, cytochrome P450, diclofop-methyl, low herbicide rate, low rates, resistance evolution

Publication Year: 2013

Authors: Q Yu, H Han, G Cawthray, S Wang, S Powles

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